After the CRC-1 studied the NBA, its processes, outcomes and beneficiary engagement in 2014, the program changed to SBM (G) under the Government of India’s announcement on October 2, 2014. As a result, CRC-2 in 2016 covered beneficiaries who had built an IHHL under the “new” SBM (G) scheme. The geographic spread of CRC-2 was similar to CRC-1: six districts each in Tamil Nadu and Odisha were chosen. The same six districts and the Blocks within each district as covered in CRC-1 were chosen. This was to enable a comparison of performance within the same districts nearly two years after the first CRC was completed. In all, 2660 households in Odisha and 2415 households in Tamil Nadu formed the beneficiary sample; 361 officials at various levels ranging from GP to district offices were interviewed in each state using a separate questionnaire.
In the interim, between the two CRCs, PAC had deployed several other tools – such as CRC+ to study the supply side funds and function flow; Community Score Cards (CSCs) to engage with the providers and beneficiaries on ground level advocacy and reforms required to improve on earlier performance of the scheme; case studies to document best practices at the Gram Panchayat Level; and, National Policy Reviews to incorporate the findings and outcomes of the study through all these tools in the context of the National Policy on sanitation under the SBM (G).
CRC-2 therefore happened at a critical juncture – two years into the implementation of the new SBM (G) program which aims to achieve complete IHHL coverage in the country and therefore declare the country ‘ODF’ [Open Defecation-Free] by October 2, 2019. This CRC therefore is in a good position to (a) compare the performance of the districts currently under SBM (G) compared two years ago (under NBA); (b) assess whether any of the issues and bottlenecks flagged in CRC-1 have shown a positive movement towards improvement; (c) measure citizen engagement and satisfaction of the beneficiaries with the process of building an IHHL under the SBM (G).
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