The Public Affairs Index (PAI) is a data-based framework that measures the quality of governance at the subnational level and ranks the states of India on a Composite Index (CI).

The 6th edition of Public Affairs Index 2021 from the Public Affairs Centre is a non-partisan, independent and evidence-based study using only Central Government Data available in the public domain. It looks at Governance performance in the context of sustainable development defined by 3 Pillars – Equity, Growth and Sustainability, 5 Themes, 14 SDGs and 43 indicators.

FAQs for PAI 2021

Public Affairs Index 2021 is the 6th edition of the flagship Project of the Public Affairs Centre. PAI 2021 ranks the States and Union Territories on the basis of their performance in the Sub-national governance for the overarching sustainable development pillars of Equity, Growth and Sustainability. There are 43 indicators that construct these 3 pillars and they aim to capture all the important human development aspects. This is the 6th edition.

This year the report has included two new components apart from the Governance Model- Scheme Analysis and the COVID-19 Response Index. The Scheme Analysis in PAI 2021 includes, ranking of the States on 5 Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National Health Mission, Integrated Child Development Services, Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan and Mid-Day Meal Scheme. The report also has introduced rankings on the performance of the States in terms of preparedness and containment of the COVID-19 Pandemic, named as The COVID-19 Response Index. PAI 2021 has also included a chapter on Delta Analysis to analyse the rate of growth of all the states and their path towards achieving Steady State.

All the data is used is taken from the public domain released by the Central Government.

A detailed methodology is followed and is explained in the technical note in the report. The indicators are finalised using a pair-wise correlation method, followed by standardising data, applying the Principal Component Analysis thus arriving at the Composite Index to rank the States and Union Territories. The overarching dimensions of the report are Equity, Growth and Sustainability.

PAI 2021 constitutes of 3 Pillars (Equity, Growth and Sustainability), 5 Themes (Voice and Accountability, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption), 14 SDGs (SDG- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16) and 43 Indicators.

PAI 2021 included 14 of 17 SDGs where we feel the States have the greatest role to play.

In PAI 2021 the Large States are those with a population more than 2 Crore and Small states are those with a population of less than 2 Crore.

Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Jammu and Kashmir, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

The States are classified based on the funding pattern between the Central and the State governments into 90:10 division states and 60:40 division states (Central share: State share).

The performance of the states is assessed under the themes of Access, Coverage Availability and Utilisation.

The 60:40 division States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

The 90:10 division States are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

The COVID-19 Response Index subsumes 2 thematic areas - Preparedness and Containment containing 4 and 3 indicators respectively.

PAI 2020 Launch Event

"The evidence that PAI 2020 generates and the insights that it provides must compel us to reflect on the economic and social transition that is underway in India"
Dr. K Kasturirangan
Chairman, PAC
"PAI 2020 presents an evidence-based assessment of human development and governance across the states in India"
G. Gurucharan
Director, PAC