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PAI

Public Affairs Index

The Public Affairs Index (PAI) is a scientifically rigorous, data-based framework that measures the quality of governance at the subnational level and ranks the states and Union Territories (UTs) of India on a Composite Index (CI). States are classified into two categories- large and small- using population as the criteria.

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Public Affairs Index (PAI) 2021 (6th edition)

In a diverse country like India, where each State is socially, culturally, economically, and politically distinct, measuring Governance becomes increasingly tricky. The Public Affairs Index (PAI 2021) is a scientifically rigorous, data-based framework that measures the quality of governance at the Sub-national level and ranks the States and Union Territories (UTs) of India on a Composite Index (CI). States are classified into two categories – Large and Small – using population as the criteria. 

In PAI 2021, PAC defined three significant pillars that embody Governance – Growth, Equity, and Sustainability. Each of the three Pillars is circumscribed by five governance praxis Themes that influence the pace and direction of development outcomes, in substantive and context-specific ways, in small or great measure. The themes include - Voice and Accountability, Government Effectiveness, Rule of Law, Regulatory Quality and Control of Corruption. At the bottom of the pyramid, 43 component indicators are mapped to 14 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are relevant to the States and UTs. This forms the foundation of the conceptual framework of PAI 2021. The choice of the 43 indicators that go into the calculation of the CI were dictated by the objective of uncovering the complexity and multidimensional character of development governance.

Get a Copy of the PAI 2021 Full Report
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PAI (Public Affairs Indexs) FAQ

1. What is PAI 2021?

Public Affairs Index 2021 is the 6th edition of the flagship Project of the Public Affairs Centre. PAI 2021 ranks the States and Union Territories on the basis of their performance in the Sub-national governance for the overarching sustainable development pillars of Equity, Growth and Sustainability. There are 43 indicators that construct these 3 pillars and they aim to capture all the important human development aspects. This is the 6th edition.

2. What is new in PAI 2021?

This year the report has included two new components apart from the Governance Model- Scheme Analysis and the COVID-19 Response Index. The Scheme Analysis in PAI 2021 includes, ranking of the States on 5 Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National Health Mission, Integrated Child Development Services, Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan and Mid-Day Meal Scheme. The report also has introduced rankings on the performance of the States in terms of preparedness and containment of the COVID-19 Pandemic, named as The COVID-19 Response Index. PAI 2021 has also included a chapter on Delta Analysis to analyse the rate of growth of all the states and their path towards achieving Steady State.

3. From where do you get the data?

All the data is used is taken from the public domain released by the Central Government.

4. What is the ranking based on?

A detailed methodology is followed and is explained in the technical note in the report. The indicators are finalised using a pair-wise correlation method, followed by standardising data, applying the Principal Component Analysis thus arriving at the Composite Index to rank the States and Union Territories. The overarching dimensions of the report are Equity, Growth and Sustainability.

5. How do you rank the states, based on what?

A detailed methodology section provides in-depth information on the creation of the Index and is explained in Technical report section. In short, the indicators were finalised using a pair-wise correlation method, followed by standardising the data, applying the Principal Component Analysis and thus arriving at Composite Index to rank the states and Union Territories. The overarching dimensions of the report are Equity, Growth and Sustainability.

6. What is the Model for PAI 2021?

PAI 2021 constitutes of 3 Pillars (Equity, Growth and Sustainability), 5 Themes (Voice and Accountability, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption), 14 SDGs (SDG- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16) and 43 Indicators.

7. Why are you focusing on only a few SDGs?

PAI 2021 included 14 of 17 SDGs where we feel the States have the greatest role to play.

8. How are the States classified?

In PAI 2021 the Large States are those with a population more than 2 Crore and Small states are those with a population of less than 2 Crore.

9. Which are the States in the Large States category?

Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

10. Which are the States in the Small states category?

Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand.

11. Which are the Union Territories included in PAI 2021?

Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Jammu and Kashmir, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

12. How are the States classified for Scheme Analysis?

The States are classified based on the funding pattern between the Central and the State governments into 90:10 division states and 60:40 division states (Central share: State share).

13. What are the theme-wise classification used to rank states for the Scheme Analysis?

The performance of the states is assessed under the themes of Access, Coverage Availability and Utilisation.

14. Which States fall under 60:40 Division States?

The 60:40 division States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

15. Which States fall under 90:10 Division States?

The 90:10 division States are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

16. What is the model for the COVID-19 Response Index?

The COVID-19 Response Index subsumes 2 thematic areas - Preparedness and Containment containing 4 and 3 indicators respectively.


For further information, kindly send an email to pec@pacindia.org